Detection and accumulation of environmentally-relevant glyphosate concentrations delivered via pulse- or continuous-delivery on passive samplers
Science of the Total Environment 838(2022):156131
Glyphosate is the most commonly used herbicide globally, which has contributed to its ubiquitous presence in the environment. Glyphosate application rates and delivery to surface water vary with land use. Streams in urban and agricultural catchments can experience continuous delivery of low concentrations of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), while their presence in forest streams occurs as an episodic pulse following silvicultural application. We assessed whether trace concentrations of glyphosate delivered as a 1-day pulse (mimic silvicultural applications) followed by flushing with deionized water would affect the detection of glyphosate or AMPA on novel passive samplers, Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler with Molecular Imprinted Polymer (POCIS-MIP), compared with continuous delivery (mimic agricultural or urban applications). Within each delivery type, POCIS-MIP were exposed to seven treatment concentrations of Rodeo (equivalent to 0.0 to 1.84 μg glyphosate L−1). Experimental results demonstrate POCIS-MIP can detect differences in relative glyphosate concentrations above 0.115 μg L−1 (pulse-delivery) or 0.23 μg L−1 (continuous-delivery), but were unable to distinguish trace concentrations (i.e., < 0.115 or 0.23 μg L−1). Our results suggest POCIS-MIP may better retain glyphosate when delivered as a pulse than when delivered continuously, but both underestimated actual treatment concentrations by 46 to 56%. There is a need to demonstrate the field applicability of passive sampling methods to improve environmental monitoring of silvicultural herbicides, and our results demonstrate passive samplers were unable to distinguish lower concentrations, suggesting a limited utility for determining trace concentration levels such as those experienced during or immediately after silvicultural application.
glyphosate, passive sampler, land use, forestry