Technical Bulletin No. 0195: Foaming Characteristics of Pulping Wastes During Biological Treatment

Although foam due to pulp and paper mill effluents is generally innocuous to surface waters, and lacks the permanence and resistance to removal by water treatment processes of some foam producing detergents, it is aesthetically undesirable and associated with pollution in the eyes of the public. This bulletin describes a method developed for measuring foaming characteristics of mill effluents and receiving waters. This method was developed as both a control technique and one for use in studying the problem in depth. The Council’s Research Center at Johns Hopkins University was responsible for this work undertaken by William L. Carpenter of the staff. In addition to describing the method of measurement, this report contains data on the application of the method in finding the specific waste constituents responsible for foaming. Research indicated that foaming tendency appeared to be due mainly to lignins while foaming stability was due to the soaps present in pulping wastes.