Technical Bulletin No. 0732: Effects of Biologically-Treated Elemental Chlorine Free Bleached Kraft Mill Effluent on Early Life-Stages and Life-Cycles of the Fathead Minnow (Pimeph

Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 7-d, 28-d, 56-d, and life-cycle bioassays, and Ceriodaphnia dubia 7-d bioassays were completed using effluent from a kraft pulp mill with only chlorine dioxide in the first pulp bleaching stage (ECF). This mill used approximately 60M3 of water/ADMT to produce 2200 tons per day of pulp from 90% softwood species. The mill produces 1200 ADMT of market fluff pulp from softwood, and the remaining pulp is used to manufacture bleached board.