Technical Bulletin No. 0811: Effects of Biologically Treated Bleached Kraft Mill Effluent from a Mill Practicing 70% Chlorine Dioxide Substitution and Oxygen Delignification on the
A fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) life-cycle study was completed with biologically treated effluent from a bleached kraft mill practicing oxygen delignification and 70% chlorine dioxide substitution. The mill produced bleached pulp from a variety of softwood species and produced approximately 1,200 ADMT/day with a water use of approximately 132,500 m3/day. The study, extending over a 7-month period of time, included the exposure of fathead minnow eggs to 0, 3, 12, 24, 50, and 100% v/v effluent with a determination of growth, survival, and spawning success.