Technical Bulletin No. 0812: Effects of Biologically Treated Effluent from a Recovered Fiber/Non-deinking Paper Mill on Early Life Stages and Life Cycles of the Fathead Minnow

A life-cycle test was used to determine whether effluent from a recovered fiber/non-deinking mill had effects on long-term growth, survival, or reproductive success of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Fathead minnow exposure effects were based on assessments at 28 and 56 days from egg hatch and then over the remaining course of the 180-day study based on growth and survival as well as egg production, hatching success, and several biomarkers. Effluent used in the study had average values of 118 mg/L BOD, 1,120 micro-mhos/cm conductivity, 170 mg/L TOC, 249 mg/L TSS, 42 mg/L tannin/lignin, and 240 microg/L of four phytosterols.