Technical Bulletin No. 0813: Effects of Biologically Treated Chlorine-bleached/Unbleached Kraft Pulp Mill Effluent on Early Life Stages and Life Cycles of the Fathead Minnow and C

Many pulp mills in the Unites States have recently made process changes, are now altering processes, or are planning process changes to meet the requirements of the Cluster Rules. The changes required are expected to produce effluents with reduced potential for association with biological effects, but studies measuring such changes before and after process alterations are rare. The mill hosting the study reported herein had not yet initiated the changes needed to meet Cluster Rules, and was also sponsoring laboratory and in-stream studies of bass (Micropterus salmoides) populations and reproductive fitness.