Technical Bulletin No. 0815: Design of Stream Sampling Networks and a GIS Method for Assessing Spatial Bias

Bias in the design of stream-sampling networks is a major cause of inaccurate characterization of water quality at state and national levels. The subject of sampling design is difficult because it includes spatial and temporal dimensions and is dispersed in scientific literature. This study identifies sources of bias that commonly occur in assessments of stream water quality, and develops methods for recognizing and reducing bias.