Technical Bulletin No. 0830: Literature Review and Field Experience on Methods of Estimating Seepage from Unlined or Earthen Lined Ponds
The pulp and paper industry operates a significant number of unlined surface impoundments (unlined ponds) including aerated stabilization basins, tertiary ponds, polishing ponds, quiescent basins, and equalization basins. As part of the technical studies program, NCASI reviewed published seepage estimation methods for their utility in documenting the performance of these basins. While NCASI limited the literature review to post-construction or in-situ seepage measuring techniques of unlined or natural earthen-lined ponds, several preconstruction methods were identified.