Technical Bulletin No. 0917: Effects of Biologically Treated Bleached Kraft Mill Effluent from a Mill with Oxygen Delignification and Elemental Chlorine Free Bleaching on Early Lif

Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 7-d, 28-d, 56-d, survival and growth bioassays, a fathead minnow life-cycle bioassay and Ceriodaphnia dubia 7-d bioassays were conducted using effluent from a mill producing bleached kraft market pulp employing oxygen delignification (OD) and elemental chlorine free bleaching (ECF, 100% CLO2 substitution) in the production process (OD+ECF). Production during testing was approximately 1470 ADMT/day of pulp and water use averaged 57m3/ADMT (air-dried metric tons). Furnish alternated between softwood and hardwood species.