Technical Bulletin No. 0977: Effects of Activated Sludge Treated Bleached Kraft Effluent from a Mill with Oxygen Delignification and Elemental Chlorine Free Bleaching on Early Life

As part of the Long-Term Receiving Water Study, effluent from a bleached kraft mill (BKME) employing oxygen delignification (OD) and elemental chlorine free bleaching (ECF, 100% CLO2 substitution) was used to evaluate biological response using Ceriodaphnia dubia whole effluent toxicity (WET) acute and chronic tests, and a fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 7-d, 28-d, and 56-d survival and growth bioassays, and life cycle test. These bioassays were conducted to determine effluent dose-response patterns in survival, growth, and reproduction; and to relate laboratory findings to instream patterns of biota (fish, macroinvertebrates, and periphyton). Measured endpoints included C.