Technical Bulletin No. 0980: Relationship of Sulfur Input to SO2 Emissions for Kraft Mill Lime Kilns

Sulfur present in fuel oil, petroleum coke, and noncondensible gases is converted to SO2 during combustion in a lime kiln. Lime kilns have been known to capture significant fractions of SO2 generated during combustion, but the range of capture efficiencies is not well quantified, nor is the phenomenon well understood. In this study, four lime kilns were tested under a variety of operating conditions, and sulfur and sodium material balances were used to quantify in-kiln SO2 capture and develop a better theoretical understanding of the process.